Table 1. Demographics and Clinical Characteristics Stratified by Marital Status
VariablesMarried (n=4088)Unmarried (n=1963)P ValueaMarital Status Subgroups
Divorced/Separated (n=842)P ValuebWidowed (n=670)P ValuecNever Married (n=451)P Valued
Age, y63 (11)63 (14)0.1560 (11)<0.001e73 (11)<0.001e53 (14)<0.001e
Male, n (%)2961 (72)918 (47)<0.001e440 (52)<0.001e211 (32)<0.001e267 (59)<0.001e
Black race, n (%)690 (17)711 (36)<0.001e317 (38)<0.001e157 (23)<0.001e237 (53)<0.001e
Body mass index, kg/m230 (6)30 (7)0.2230 (7)0.3229 (7)0.2431 (8)0.009e
Employed, n (%)f1539 (38)511 (26)<0.001e273 (32)0.004e97 (15)<0.001e141 (31)0.008e
College education, n (%)g2474 (61)1002 (51)<0.001e446 (53)<0.001e296 (44)<0.001e260 (58)0.24
Median income, estimatedh51 620 (17 833)47 644 (16 219)<0.001e48 138 (16 208)<0.001e47 969 (16 896)<0.001e46 290 (15 195)<0.001e
Clinical characteristics
History of smoking, n (%)2710 (66)1245 (63)0.028e554 (66)0.78430 (64)0.29261 (58)<0.001e
Hypertension, n (%)3130 (77)1583 (82)<0.001e675 (81)0.003e571 (86)<0.001e337 (76)0.38
Diabetes mellitus, n (%)1414 (35)709 (37)0.25297 (36)0.72263 (39)0.037e149 (34)0.71
Low‐density lipoprotein, mg/dL93 (36)97 (39)<0.001e100 (39)<0.001e95 (41)0.7796 (37)0.38
High‐density lipoprotein, mg/dL42 (13)45 (20)<0.001e44 (15)<0.001e46 (14)<0.001e46 (31)<0.001e
MI on admission, n (%)324 (8)166 (9)0.4853 (6)0.1272 (11)0.019e41 (9)0.41
History of MI, n (%)955 (24)468 (25)0.45201 (25)0.56174 (27)0.1093 (22)0.26
Obstructive CAD, n (%)i2916 (76)1340 (74)0.07554 (70)0.001e501 (82)0.001e285 (68)<0.001e
Heart failure, n (%)842 (21)519 (27)<0.001e221 (27)<0.001e177 (27)0.001e121 (27)0.002e
eGFR, mL/min/1.73 m273 (23)71 (27)0.024e74 (26)0.6463 (22)<0.001e78 (30)<0.001e
ACEI/ARB use, n (%)2297 (56)1023 (52)0.003e440 (52)0.040e379 (57)0.87204 (45)<0.001e
Beta‐blocker use, n (%)2689 (66)1317 (67)0.32550 (65)0.81487 (73)<0.001e280 (62)0.12
Aspirin use, n (%)3168 (78)1422 (72)<0.001e595 (71)<0.001e532 (79)0.29295 (65)<0.001e
Statin use, n (%)2945 (72)1296 (66)<0.001e535 (64)<0.001e483 (72)1.00278 (62)<0.001e
Clopidogrel use, n (%)1812 (44)789 (40)0.002e344 (41)0.07309 (46)0.40136 (30)<0.001e
Clinical outcomes
All‐cause death (n=1085)681 (16.66)404 (20.58)<0.001e153 (18.17)0.29184 (27.46)<0.001e67 (14.86)0.33
Cardiovascular death (n=688)412 (10.08)276 (14.06)<0.001e102 (12.11)0.07126 (18.81)<0.001e48 (10.64)0.71
MI (n=272)170 (4.16)102 (5.2)0.0748 (5.7)0.047e33 (4.93)0.3621 (4.66)0.61
Cardiovascular death/MI (n=824)506 (12.38)336 (17.12)<0.001e135 (16.03)0.004e142 (21.19)<0.001e59 (13.08)0.67
  • Values are mean (SD) unless otherwise noted. ACEI/ARB indicates angiotensin‐converting enzyme inhibitor or angiontensin receptor blocker; CAD, coronary artery disease; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate; MI, myocardial infarction.

  • a P value denotes statistical significance for comparison between married and all unmarried participants.

  • b P value denotes statistical significance for comparison between married and divorced or separated participants.

  • c P value denotes statistical significance for comparison between married and widowed participants.

  • d P value denotes statistical significance for comparison between married and never‐married individuals.

  • e Statistically significant P values.

  • f Includes part‐time employment.

  • g Includes any college education, even if incomplete.

  • h Median income estimated from ZIP code–derived median income.

  • i Obstructive CAD is defined as the presence of a ≥50% obstructive lesion in any of the major vessels on coronary angiogram at enrollment.