Table 3. Marital Status and Outcomes
VariablesAll‐Cause Death, HR (95% CI)Cardiovascular, Death sHR (95% CI)Cardiovascular Death/MI, sHR (95% CI)
Model 1: Clinical characteristics
Male1.03 (0.87–1.21)0.92 (0.74–1.15)0.94 (0.77–1.14)
Black race1.13 (0.93–1.37)1.27 (1.00–1.62)1.39 (1.13–1.72)
Body mass index, per 5 kg/m20.86 (0.81–0.93)0.89 (0.81–0.98)0.92 (0.84–0.99)
Smoking history1.28 (1.09–1.50)1.33 (1.09–1.64)1.39 (1.15–1.68)
Hypertension1.00 (0.84–1.21)1.08 (0.85–1.37)1.13 (0.91–1.41)
Diabetes mellitus1.26 (1.08–1.48)1.12 (0.92–1.38)1.21 (1.01–1.45)
Low‐density lipoprotein, per 10 mg/dL1.00 (0.98–1.02)0.99 (0.97–1.02)0.99 (0.97–1.02)
High‐density lipoprotein, per 10 mg/dL0.99 (0.93–1.05)0.94 (0.86–1.02)0.96 (0.89–1.03)
eGFR rate, per 10 mL/min/1.73 m20.86 (0.83–0.89)0.86 (0.82–0.90)0.88 (0.84–0.91)
MI history1.01 (0.86–1.18)0.97 (0.79–1.19)1.19 (0.99–1.43)
Obstructive CAD1.28 (1.06. 1.55)1.38 (1.08–1.76)1.64 (1.31–2.07)
Heart failure2.06 (1.76–2.41)2.54 (2.09–3.10)2.03 (1.69–2.43)
Model 2: Clinical characteristics plus marital status
Unmarried vs married1.24 (1.06–1.47)1.45 (1.18–1.78)1.52 (1.27–1.83)
Model 3: Clinical characteristics plus marital status groups
Divorced/separated vs married1.23 (0.98–1.55)1.27 (0.95–1.69)1.41 (1.10–1.81)
Widowed vs married1.24 (0.99–1.54)1.62 (1.23–2.13)1.71 (1.32–2.20)
Never married vs married1.28 (0.92–1.79)1.47 (0.98–2.21)1.40 (0.97–2.03)
Model 4: Clinical characteristics plus marital status plus medications
Unmarried vs married1.24 (1.05–1.46)1.45 (1.18–1.78)1.52 (1.26–1.83)
Model 5: Clinical characteristics plus marital status plus socioeconomic factors (employment and education)
Unmarried vs married1.14 (0.95–1.37)1.33 (1.06–1.68)1.46 (1.22–1.76)
  • CAD indicates coronary artery disease; CI, confidence interval; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate; HR, hazard ratio; MI, myocardial infarction; sHR, subdistribution hazard ratio.