Table 1. Cardiovascular Therapies and Interventions Recommended by Professional Societies and National Expert Panels During Study Period (2006–2013)
Cardiovascular TherapyDescription of TherapyTarget PopulationPopulation ExcludedReference
Aspirin/antiplatelet therapyAspirin, clopidogrel, ticlopidine, or prasugrelAdults with CVD; men aged 45 to 79 y; women aged 55 to 79 yAdults with GI bleeding, peptic ulcer disease, gastritis, duodenitis, or cerebral hemorrhageAHA/ACC, USPSTF
Statin therapyAny statin medicationAdults with CVD, diabetes mellitus, or dyslipidemiaAdults with liver diseaseAHA/ACC, ATP III
Hypertension therapyAny antihypertensive medicationAdults with hypertensionNoneJNC 7
Smoking cessation adviceCounseling and/or smoking cessation medicationsAdult smokersNoneUSPSTF
Behavioral counselingCounseling about diet, exercise, or weight lossAdults with hypertension, CVD, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, or obesity/overweight; men aged 45 to 79 y; women aged 55 to 79 yNoneUSPSTF
  • USPSTF guidelines for aspirin use published in 2009 were more restrictive in their definition of target populations than 2002 guidelines, and we applied the former. ATP III guidelines recommend consideration of LDL levels but these data were scarcely available so we were unable to incorporate them. USPSTF recommended dietary counseling for patients with cardiovascular risk factors in a 2002 guideline but did not issue a recommendation about physical activity counseling in this patient population. Patients with chronic liver disease were defined as patients with viral hepatitis B, viral hepatitis C, chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and malignancy of the liver or bile ducts, using diagnosis codes reported by Byrd et al,21 Public Health Rep, 2015. ACC indicates American College of Cardiology; AHA, American Heart Association; ATP III, Adult Treatment Panel III; CVD, cardiovascular disease; GI, gastrointestinal; JNC 7, Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure; LDL, low‐density lipoprotein; USPSTF, US Preventive Services Task Force.