Table 4. Associations Between Gestational Age and Incidence of Poor CRF Through Adolescence to Young Adulthood (N=791)a
Main DeterminantModel 1Model 2Model 3
Gestational AgeRR95% CIP ValueRR95% CIP ValueRR95% CIP Value
Per wk0.860.77–0.960.0080.860.76–0.960.0090.870.79–0.970.011
Per category
Early term1.00Ref.···1.00Ref.···1.00Ref.···
Full term0.660.48–0.910.0100.650.47–0.890.0080.710.52–0.970.032
Late term0.600.40–0.900.0140.590.40–0.900.0130.640.44–0.930.021
P value, linear trendb0.0120.0110.021
  • Model 1, adjusted for cohort, age, sex, age×sex, and birth weight Z scores; model 2, model 1 plus adjustments for socioeconomic status, maternal age at child's birth, delivery mode, breastfeeding, maternal body mass index, and maternal smoking history; model 3, model 2 plus adjustment for height, maturity level, and total body fatness (sum of 4 skinfolds). Ref. indicates reference; RR, incident risk ratio of poor cardiorespiratory fitness through adolescence to young adulthood per week increase in gestational age or between individuals who were born full (n=533) or late term (n=148) vs early term (n=110); CRF indicates cardiorespiratory fitness.

  • a Defined on the basis of the following age‐ and sex‐specific cut points for maximal oxygen uptake (in mL/kg per minute): <41.8 (childhood and adolescence) and <33 (young adulthood) in males and <34.6 (childhood and adolescence) and <24 (young adulthood) in females.

  • b Mean gestational ages per gestational age category were 37.7 weeks (early term), 39.7 weeks (full term), and 41.1 weeks (late term).