Table 3. Associations Between Gestational Age and Cardiopulmonary Fitness Through Adolescence to Young Adulthood (N=791)
Main OutcomeMain DeterminantModel 1Model 2Model 3
CRFGestational Ageß95% CIP Valueß95% CIP Valueß95% CIP Value
mL/min per kgPer week0.460.14 to 0.790.0050.460.14 to0.780.0040.410.13 to 0.680.004
Per category
Early term0.00Ref.···0.00Ref.···0.00Ref.···
Full term0.87−0.11 to 1.860.0820.86−0.11 to 1.830.0820.62−0.22 to 1.450.147
Late term1.560.36 to 2.770.0111.590.40 to 2.770.0091.320.30 to 2.340.011
P value, linear trenda0.0110.0090.012
mL/min per FFMPer week0.540.19 to 0.890.0030.540.19 to 0.880.0020.530.19 to 0.880.003
Per category
Early term0.00Ref.···0.00Ref.···0.00Ref.···
Full term0.88−0.18 to 1.950.1050.88−0.18 to 1.930.1040.86−0.20 to 1.910.111
Late term1.720.41 to 3.020.0101.730.44 to 3.020.0091.720.43 to 3.010.009
P value, linear trenda0.0100.0090.009
mL/min per kg0.67Per week1.590.38 to 2.800.0101.520.33 to 2.710.0121.380.26 to 2.510.016
Per category
Early term0.00Ref.···0.00Ref.···
Full term2.94−0.74 to 6.620.1172.77−0.85 to 6.400.1341.88−1.55 to 5.310.282
Late term5.571.07 to 10.10.0155.400.97 to 9.840.0174.730.53 to 8.930.027
P value, linear trenda0.0160.0170.029
mL/min per kg0.79Per week1.010.28 to 1.740.0070.980.27 to 1.700.0070.890.22 to 1.550.009
Per category
Early term0.00Ref.···0.00Ref.···0.00Ref.···
Full term1.89−0.33 to 4.100.0961.81−0.38 to 4.000.1051.26−0.78 to 3.300.227
Late term3.490.77 to 6.210.0123.450.77 to 6.120.0122.970.47 to 5.470.020
P value, linear trenda0.0120.0120.021
  • Model 1, adjusted for cohort, age, sex, age×sex, and birth weight Z scores; model 2, model 1 plus adjustments for socioeconomic status, maternal age at child's birth, delivery mode, breastfeeding, maternal body mass index, and maternal smoking history; model 3, model 2 plus adjustment for height, maturity level, and total body fatness (sum of 4 skinfolds). CRF indicates cardiorespiratory fitness; FFM, fat‐free mass (in kg); Ref., reference; ß, mean difference in maximal oxygen uptake (in units indicated) throughout the longitudinal period per week increase in gestational age or between individuals who were born full (n=533) or late term (n=148) vs early term (n=110).

  • a Mean gestational ages per gestational age category were 37.7 weeks (early term), 39.7 weeks (full term), and 41.1 weeks (late term).