Table 2. Chemicals Emitted in e‐Cigarette Vapors and Their Potential Health Effects
ChemicalDetected Concentration RangeBiological System Affected
NicotineND to 36.6 mg/mL10, 62, 63 Lung tumor promoter67
Gastrointestinal carcinogen67
Raises blood pressure and heart rate68
Reduce brain development in adolescents37
CotinineNDaReduce fertility and reproduction69
AldehydesAcetaldehyde0.11 to 2.94 μg/15 puffs53, 64, 65 Carcinogen70
Aggravation of alcohol‐induced liver damage71
Acrolein0.044 to 6.74 μg/15 puffs53, 64, 65 Ocular irritation72
Respiratory irritation72
Gastrointestinal irritation72
Formaldehyde0.2 to 27.1 μg/15 puffs53, 64, 65 Carcinogen68
Bronchitis, pneumonia, and increase asthma risk in children73, 74
Ocular, nasal, and throat irritant74
o‐Methyl benzaldehydeND to 7.1 μg/15 puffs7Unknown
AcetoneND to 91.27 Gastric distress75
Weakness of extremities and headache75
Ocular irritation75
Volatile organic compoundsPropylene glycol0 to 82.875 mg/15 puffs7 Throat and airways irritation.76
Gastric distress68
Increase asthma risk in children68
Ocular irritation68
Glycerin75 to 225 μg/15 puffs57 Lipoid pneumonia77
Ocular, dermal, and pulmonary irritant78
3‐Methylbutyl‐3‐methylbutanoate1.5 to 16.5 μg/15 puffs57Unknown
Toluene<0.63 μg/15 puffs64 CNS damage79
Renal damage80
NitrosaminesNNN0.8 to 4.3 ng/e‐cigarette64Carcinogen87
NNK1.1 to 28.3 ng/e‐cigarette64Carcinogen87
MetalsChromiumND to 0.0105 μg/15 puffs7, 66 Pulmonary irritation and inflammation, nasal mucosa atrophy and ulcerations81
Nasal mucosa atrophy, reduce fertility and reproduction82
CadmiumND to 0.022 μg/15 puffs64, 66 Increase risk of lung cancer83
Pulmonary and nasal irritation83
Lead0.025 to 0.57 μg/15 puffs64, 66 Hypertension induction83, 84, 88
Renal damage88
CNS damage84, 88
Nickel0.0075 to 0.29 μg/15 puffs64, 66 Carcinogen43
CNS and pulmonary damage85
Renal and hepatic toxicity85
  • ND indicates not detected; CNS, central nervous system; NNK, 4‐(methylnitrosamino)‐1‐(3‐pyridyl)‐1‐butanone; NNN, N‐nitrosamines.

  • a Variable concentrations found in plasma after using e‐cigarettes.92