Table 1. Potential Effects of e‐Cigarettes on Biological Systems
SystemEffects of e‐Cigarettes
Pulmonary system Upper and lower respiratory tract irritation9, 26, 27
Bronchitis, cough, and emphysema9, 26, 27
Immune system Inflammation induction28
Reduce immune efficiency29
Central nervous system Behavioral changes9
Memory impairment (animal models)9, 10
Tremor and muscle spasms10
Miscellaneous Ocular irritation9
Contact dermatitis and burns9, 31
Nausea and vomiting9, 31
Throat and mouth irritation30, 31