Table 2. CVD End Points Associated With Breastfeedinga
Events, No.NulliparousParous WomenbEach Additional 6 mo Per Childc
Never BreastfedBreastfed
All CVD49 3771.02 (0.94–1.10)1.00 (0.95–1.05)0.96 (0.95–0.97)0.98 (0.97–0.99)
Major CVD19 2270.99 (0.89–1.11)1.00 (0.92–1.09)0.88 (0.87–0.90)0.97 (0.96–0.99)
Fatal CVD38251.17 (0.92–1.48)1.00 (0.77–1.29)0.90 (0.87–0.94)0.98 (0.95–1.01)
Coronary heart disease16 6711.01 (0.90–1.14)1.00 (0.92–1.09)0.91 (0.89–0.93)0.96 (0.95–0.98)
Stroke23 9830.95 (0.86–1.06)1.00 (0.93–1.08)0.92 (0.90–0.93)0.97 (0.96–0.98)
Hemorrhagic stroke29980.92 (0.68–1.25)1.00 (0.77–1.31)0.84 (0.81–0.88)0.99 (0.96–1.03)
Ischemic stroke14 2900.96 (0.85–1.10)1.00 (0.91–1.09)0.88 (0.86–0.90)0.97 (0.95–0.98)
  • Values are adjusted hazard ratios (95% CIs).

  • CVD indicates cardiovascular disease.

  • a Analyses are stratified by age at risk and study area and adjusted for level of attained education, household income, smoking status, alcohol use, systolic blood pressure, history of hypertension, physical activity, body mass index, and history of diabetes mellitus.

  • b SEs were obtained using floating absolute risks.

  • c Among parous women who ever breastfed only.