Table 1. Baseline‐Adjusted ECG and BP Parameters
Drink1 Hour2 Hours4 Hours6 Hours24 Hours
QTc, msED−1.17±20.70.44±18.40.83±19.5−1.33±17.41.44±18.3
C−5.83±17.7−10.4±14.8−3.67±13.2−5.89±15.3−4.17±17.4
P value0.380.02a0.350.610.47
QT, msED−2.44±16.3−10.7±20.3−3.33±20.7−1.78±22.67.56±27.8
C−2.44±17.1−9.33±18.1−2.67±18.5−8.67±19.53.78±23.7
P value0.7820.890.770.170.85
PR, msED−1.78±10.47−5.11±11.4−6.00±15.7−6.22±14.70.67±11.7
C−3.11±10.2−2.67±11.4−4.89±10.9−4.78±9.431.77±10.6
P value0.860.560.820.680.95
QRS, msED6.17±3.334.22±2.733.39±4.153.22±5.011.94±3.69
C6.11±4.913.28±3.923.06±2.901.28±3.820.78±4.26
P value0.820.150.600.240.25
HR, bpmED0.33±10.53.39±11.041.22±11.60.17±12.3−1.50±12.0
C−1.28±8.41−0.61±9.13−0.22±8.590.61±10.1−2.28±11.1
P value0.330.070.420.820.71
pSBP, mm HgED6.00±6.644.28±6.173.89±5.44.72±4.67−0.81±4.54
C7.08±4.374.78±4.552.25±5.450.83±6.09−1.33±6.15
P value0.770.970.550.01a1.00
pDBP, mm HgED4.25±4.011.33±3.870.28±4.921.53±3.70−0.03±3.76
C4.33±4.592.72±4.321.39±2.77−0.50±5.85−1.03±4.65
P value0.750.370.360.270.40
cSBP, mm HgED4.28±5.482.89±6.031.67±5.082.28±3.54−1.44±3.40
C3.67±6.113.06±4.260.33±5.41−0.33±6.27−2.00±5.08
P value0.781.000.390.080.89
cDBP, mm HgED3.89±3.981.50±3.79−0.06±5.001.22±3.44−0.67±3.56
C3.78±4.632.17±4.421.56±3.33−0.56±5.71−1.61±4.17
P value0.890.670.190.350.58
AIED−2.50±6.48−1.61±5.70−3.56±5.67−3.72±7.61−2.61±7.21
C−0.55±9.392.78±9.92−0.88±9.491.50±9.852.33±7.18
P value0.520.110.370.02a0.07
  • AI indicates augmentation index, corrected to a heart rate (HR) of 75 beats per minute (bpm); C, caffeine; cDBP, central diastolic blood pressure; cSBP, central systolic blood pressure; ED, energy drink; pDBP, peripheral diastolic blood pressure; pSBP, peripheral systolic blood pressure.

  • a P<0.05.