Table 1. Characteristics of All Participants Who Underwent Echocardiography
No.1338
Men, No. (%)1011 (76)
Ethnicity, No. (%)
White European632 (47)
South Asian488 (37)
African Caribbean218 (16)
Age, y69.6±6.1
Body mass index, kg/m227.4±4.5
Waist‐hip ratio
Men1.00±0.06
Women0.92±0.08
Hypertension, No. (%)890 (67)
Diabetes mellitus, No. (%)409 (31)
Coronary artery disease, No. (%)324 (24)
Stroke, No. (%)77 (6)
Heart failure, No. (%)38 (3)
Atrial fibrillation, No. (%)92 (7)
Smoking, No. (%)
Never757 (57)
Ever491 (37)
Current83 (6)
Systolic blood pressure, mm Hg140±18
Diastolic blood pressure, mm Hg77±10
Mean arterial pressure, mm Hg98±11
Education, y11.8±3.3
MRI brain volumes, cm3
Hippocampal volume7.4±1.0
Total brain volume1426±174
LV global function
NT‐proBNP, pg/mL85 (47, 170)
LV systolic function
Ejection fraction, %61.6±9.5
Ejection fraction <55%, No. (%)274 (21)
Cardiac index, L/min per m22.06±0.5
Sa, cm/s7.5±1.4
LV diastolic function, cm/s
Mitral E64±17
E/Ea9.4±3.1
E:A0.86±0.25
E/Aa6.4±2.2
Ea/Aa0.7±0.2
Normal diastolic function, No. (%)77 (6)
Mild diastolic dysfunction, No. (%)948 (76)
Moderate diastolic dysfunction, No. (%)220 (18)
Severe diastolic dysfunction, No. (%)1 (0)
LADI, cm/m0.024±0.003
LV structure
LVMI, g/m2.744.0±11.9
LVH, No. (%)304 (23)
EDV, mL93.7±23.2
Vascular and other measures
cfPWV, m/s11.4±3.5
cIMT, mm0.82±0.2
Microvascular disease
ACR3.03±16.8
eGFR, mg/mL73.4±16.2
Retinopathy, No. (%)
None741 (67)
Mild335 (30)
Moderate/proliferative35 (3)
WMH
Grade 023 (2)
Grade 1438 (35)
Grade 2381 (30)
Grade 3416 (33)
IL‐6, pg/mL1.70±2.7
  • Data are expressed as mean±SD or median (25th–75th percentile for skewed data) for numerical data and number (percentage) for categorical data. A indicates mitral inflow late wave; Aa, tissue Doppler imaging peak late diastolic wave; ACR, albumin:creatinine ratio; cfPWV, carotid to femoral pulse wave velocity; cIMT, carotid intima‐media thickness; Ea, tissue Doppler imaging peak early diastolic wave; EDV, end‐diastolic volume; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate; IL‐6, interleukin 6; LADI, left atrial diameter indexed to height; LV, left ventricular; LVH, left ventricular hypertrophy; LVMI, left ventricular mass indexed to height2.7; Mitral E, mitral inflow early wave; MRI, magnetic resonance imaging; NT‐proBNP, N‐terminal pro–brain natriuretic peptide; Sa, tissue Doppler imaging peak systolic wave; WMH, white matter hyperintensities.