Table 2. Rates, Hazard Ratios (HR) and 95% CI for CVD Events and Mortality According to Periodontitis and Edentulism (n=57 001)
PeriodontitisEdentulism
No 42 154Yes 14 847P ValueNo 53 659Yes 3342P Value
Total cardiovascular disease
Events, no.26409493257332
Person‐years281 882101 439363 26920 053
Rate per 1000 person‐years9.49.49.016.6
Unadjusted HR (95% CI)1.00 (ref)1.00 (0.93–1.07)0.941.00 (ref)1.86 (1.66–2.08)<0.001
Model 1 adjusted HR (95% CI)1.00 (ref)1.01 (0.94–1.09)0.831.00 (ref)1.42 (1.27–1.59)<0.001
Model 2 adjusted HR (95% CI)1.00 (ref)1.04 (0.97–1.13)0.281.00 (ref)1.09 (0.95–1.26)0.21
Model 3 adjusted HR (95% CI)1.00 (ref)1.06 (0.98–1.14)0.141.00 (ref)1.07 (0.93–1.23)0.36
Coronary heart diseasea
Events, No.12384501520168
Person‐years287 232103 353369 90720 678
Rate per 1000 person‐years4.34.44.18.1
Unadjusted HR (95% CI)1.00 (ref)1.01 (0.90–1.12)0.921.00 (ref)2.02 (1.72–2.37)<0.001
Model 1 adjusted HR (95% CI)1.00 (ref)1.02 (0.91–1.14)0.721.00 (ref)1.47 (1.25–1.73)<0.001
Model 2 adjusted HR (95% CI)1.00 (ref)1.07 (0.96–1.19)0.251.00 (ref)1.11 (0.91–1.36)0.30
Model 3 adjusted HR (95% CI)1.00 (ref)1.08 (0.97–1.20)0.181.00 (ref)1.10 (0.90–1.34)0.36
Strokeb
Events, no.61222678256
Person‐years287 875103 659370 67320 860
Rate per 1000 person‐years2.12.22.12.7
Unadjusted HR (95% CI)1.00 (ref)1.02 (0.88–1.19)0.771.00 (ref)1.29 (0.99–1.70)0.06
Model 1 adjusted HR (95% CI)1.00 (ref)1.08 (0.93–1.26)0.311.00 (ref)0.97 (0.74–1.28)0.83
Model 2 adjusted HR (95% CI)1.00 (ref)1.10 (0.95–1.29)0.211.00 (ref)0.77 (0.55–1.06)0.10
Model 3 adjusted HR (95% CI)1.00 (ref)1.11 (0.95–1.30)0.191.00 (ref)0.77 (0.55–1.06)0.10
Total mortality
Deaths, no.272610903421395
Person‐years288 976104 059372 14920 886
Rate per 1000 person‐years9.410.59.218.9
Unadjusted HR (95% CI)1.00 (ref)1.11 (1.03–1.19)0.0051.00 (ref)2.11 (1.90–2.34)<0.001
Model 1 adjusted HR (95% CI)1.00 (ref)1.08 (1.00–1.16)0.041.00 (ref)1.47 (1.32–1.63)<0.001
Model 2 adjusted HR (95% CI)1.00 (ref)1.12 (1.05–1.21)0.0021.00 (ref)1.16 (1.02–1.33)0.02
Model 3 adjusted HR (95% CI)1.00 (ref)1.12 (1.05–1.21)0.0021.00 (ref)1.17 (1.02–1.33)0.02
CVD mortalityc
Deaths, no.60621372693
Person‐years288 976104 059372 14920 886
Rate per 1000 person‐years2.12.02.04.5
Unadjusted HR (95% CI)1.00 (ref)0.97 (0.83–1.13)0.691.00 (ref)2.36 (1.90–2.92)<0.001
Model 1 adjusted HR (95% CI)1.00 (ref)1.01 (0.86–1.18)0.951.00 (ref)1.59 (1.28–1.98)<0.001
Model 2 adjusted HR (95% CI)1.00 (ref)1.08 (0.92–1.27)0.331.00 (ref)1.06 (0.81–1.39)0.67
Model 3 adjusted HR (95% CI)1.00 (ref)1.09 (0.93–1.28)0.301.00 (ref)1.07 (0.81–1.40)0.64
  • Model 1—adjusted for age, smoking (status and pack‐years). Model 2—adjusted for factors in model 1 plus dental visits and diabetes mellitus. Model 3—adjusted for factors in model 2 plus race‐ethnicity, education, hypertension, high cholesterol, body mass index, physical activity, alcohol, and dietary healthy eating index. CVD indicates cardiovascular disease.

  • a Includes myocardial infarction or cardiac death.

  • b Ischemic strokes only.

  • c Includes myocardial infarction, cardiac death, cerebrovascular events, pulmonary embolism, and heart failure.