Table 1. Characteristics of the Total Study Group and According to Periodontitis and Edentulism Status (n=57 001)
PeriodontitisEdentulism
TotalYesNoP ValueYesNoP Value
57 00114 84742 154334253 659
N (%)N (%)N (%)N (%)N (%)
Age, y
Mean±SD68.1±7.167.6±6.968.3±7.2<0.00170.2±7.068.0±7.1<0.001
50 to 598354 (14.7)2276 (15.3)6078 (14.4)<0.001260 (7.8)8094 (15.1)<0.001
60 to 6924 945 (43.8)6936 (46.7)18 009 (42.7)1311 (39.2)23 634 (44.0)
≥7023 702 (41.5)5635 (38.0)18 067 (42.9)1771 (52.9)21 931 (40.9)
Ethnicity
White48 999 (86.0)12 703 (85.6)36 296 (86.1)<0.0012644 (79.1)46 355 (86.4)<0.001
Black3589 (6.3)1121 (7.6)2468 (5.9)418 (12.5)3171 (5.9)
Other4413 (7.7)1023 (6.8)3390 (8.0)280 (8.4)4133 (7.7)
Education
≤High school diploma10 920 (19.2)2204 (14.8)8716 (20.7)<0.0011339 (40.1)9581 (17.9)<0.001
College or some college27 293 (47.9)6931 (46.7)20 362 (48.3)1539 (46.1)25 754 (48.0)
Postgraduate18 788 (33.0)5712 (38.5)13 076 (31.0)464 (13.9)18 324 (34.1)
Body mass index, kg/m2
Mean±SD27.1±5.727.2±5.727.1±5.60.13428.8±6.327.0±5.6<0.001
<2523 471 (41.2)6008 (40.4)17 463 (41.4)0.103978 (29.3)22 493 (41.9)
25.0 to 29.919 683 (34.5)5255 (35.4)14 428 (34.2)1147 (34.3)18 536 (34.6)
≥3013 847 (24.3)3584 (24.2)10 263 (24.4)1217 (36.4)12 630 (23.5)
Physical activity (MET‐hr/week)
Mean±SD13.9±14.013.9±13.713.9±14.10.88910.6±13.314.1±14.0<0.001
Healthy eating index, units
Mean±SD69.5±10.569.0±10.769.7±10.4<0.00165.7±11.469.7±10.4<0.001
Smoking status
Never smoked30 216 (53.0)6461 (43.5)23 755 (56.4)<0.0011371 (41.0)28 845 (53.8)<0.001
Past smoker24 470 (42.9)7531 (50.7)16 939 (40.2)1619 (48.4)22 851 (42.6)
Current smoker2315 (4.1)855 (5.8)1460 (3.5)352 (10.5)1963 (3.7)
Smoking pack‐years
Mean±SD9.1±16.813.1±19.97.7±15.3<0.00117.3±23.48.6±16.2<0.001
030 216 (53.0)6461 (43.5)23 755 (56.4)<0.0011371 (41.0)28 845 (53.8)<0.001
≤4023 021 (40.4)6753 (45.5)16 268 (38.6)1418 (42.4)21 603 (40.3)
>403764 (6.6)1633 (11.0)2131 (5.1)553 (16.5)3211 (6.0)
Alcohol serving/week
Mean±SD2.58±5.23.09±5.872.40±4.93<0.0011.70±4.592.64±5.24<0.001
Age at menopause
Mean±SD48.5±6.048.6±5.948.5±6.00.02147.6±6.948.5±5.9<0.001
Hormone therapy use
Never user16 190 (29.2)4164 (28.8)12 026 (29.3)<0.0011278 (40.6)14 912 (28.5)<0.001
Former user16 043 (28.1)4192 (28.2)11 851 (28.1)872 (26.1)15 171 (28.2)
Current user23 207 (40.7)6102 (41.1)17 105 (40.6)997 (29.8)22 210 (41.4)
History of treated diabetes mellitus
Yes2847 (5.0)774 (5.2)2073 (4.9)0.155362 (10.8)2485 (4.6)<0.001
History of treated hypertension
Yes20 940 (36.7)5341 (36.0)15 599 (37.0)0.0251561 (46.7)19 379 (36.1)<0.001
History of treated high cholesterol
Yes6766 (11.9)1740 (11.7)5026 (11.9)0.510486 (14.5)6280 (11.7)<0.001
Routine dental check‐ups
≥2 times per year39 800 (69.8)11 735 (79.0)28 065 (66.6)<0.001420 (12.6)39 380 (73.4)<0.001
≤1 time per year10 081 (17.6)1748 (11.8)8333 (19.7)472 (14.1)9609 (17.9)
Whenever needed4082 (7.2)814 (5.5)3268 (7.8)899 (26.9)3183 (5.9)
None in past 3 years3038 (5.3)550 (3.7)2488 (5.9)1551 (46.4)1487 (2.8)
Edentulous
Yes3342 (5.9)682 (4.6)2660 (6.3)<0.001
History of periodontitis
Yes682 (20.4)14 165 (26.4)<0.001
  • Data coincide with, or were the most recently obtained relative to, the Year‐5 periodontal disease questionnaire. Comparisons were made using χ2 tests for proportions and independent t tests or Wilcoxon tests for means. MET, metabolic equivalent.