Table 3. Age‐ and Smoking‐ (Status and Pack‐Years) Adjusted Hazard Ratios (HR) and 95% CI of Total Cardiovascular Disease Incidence for History of Periodontitis and Edentulism According to Study Subgroups
EventsPeriodontitisEdentulism
HR (95% CI)aHR (95% CI)a
Age, y
50 to 59 (n=8354)1761.14 (0.83–1.56)1.30 (0.61–2.76)
60 to 69 (n=24 945)11041.04 (0.92–1.19)1.41 (1.13–1.76)
≥70 (n=23 702)23090.98 (0.89–1.08)1.43 (1.25–1.63)
Interaction P value0.530.97
Race‐ethnicity
White (n=48 999)32380.99 (0.92–1.08)1.45 (1.28–1.64)
Black (n=3589)1901.01 (0.75–1.37)1.21 (0.82–1.79)
Other (n=4413)1611.25 (0.88–1.76)1.24 (0.72–2.15)
Interaction P value0.450.61
Smoking pack‐years
0 (n=30 216)17931.00 (0.89–1.12)1.37 (1.14–1.65)
≤40 (n=23 021)14441.06 (0.94–1.18)1.56 (1.31–1.85)
>40 (n=3764)3520.99 (0.80–1.23)1.42 (1.09–1.86)
Interaction P value0.750.60
History of treated diabetes mellitus
No (n=54 154)32321.00 (0.93–1.08)1.40 (1.23–1.58)
Yes (n=2847)3571.06 (0.84–1.34)1.10 (0.82–1.48)
Interaction P value0.620.15
Dental visits
≥1 time per year28491.03 (0.95–1.12)1.57 (1.23–1.99)
<1 time per year7401.06 (0.89–1.27)1.03 (0.89–1.20)
Interaction P value0.760.004
  • a HR comparing women with periodontitis or edentulism to women without either condition (referent group), within stratum of each modifying factor.