Table 2. Baseline Characteristics According to CVH Score—Multi‐Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, 2000‐2002a
Low CVH (0‐7 Points) N=2456Moderate CVH (8‐11 Points) N=3097High CVH (12‐14 Points) N=408
Mean age, y64.162.159.5
Male, %48.546.339.2
Race/ethnicity, %
Bachelor's degree or higher, %26.140.959.6
Annual income >$50 000, %36.245.955.2
Systolic blood pressure, mm Hg (SD)134 (21)123 (20)108 (12)
Use of antihypertensive medication, %52.1221.62.9
Total cholesterol, mg/dL (SD)198 (39.5)193 (32.8)179 (24.1)
Use of lipid‐lowering medication, %
High‐density lipoprotein cholesterol, mg/dL (SD)48.4 (13.4)52.5 (15.5)56.2 (16.7)
Fasting glucose, mg/dL (SD)108.3 (39.8)89.9 (18.0)84.4 (8.7)
Use of glucose‐lowering medication, %
Current smoker, %
Body mass index, kg/m2 (SD)31.1 (5.4)26.7 (4.5)23.2 (2.7)
Minutes of moderate or vigorous physical activity/week272472614
Ideal diet, n (%)b36 (1.5)169 (5.5)69 (16.9)
  • Whole grains and fruits pattern was used for this analysis, reflecting high consumption of fruit, whole grains, green leafy vegetables, nuts, and low‐fat dairy and low consumption of red meat, refined grains, and sugar‐sweetened beverages. The top quartile of the possible diet scores was considered ideal. CVH indicates cardiovascular health.

  • a There is a statistically significant difference in all baseline characteristics between categories, P<0.001.

  • b Diet scores were calculated using a principal‐components analysis of the food frequency questionnaire.