Table 1. Baseline Characteristics by Race and Sex
CharacteristicsBlackWhite
Overall (N=932)Male (N=542)Female (N=390)Overall (N=1531)Male (N=1073)Female (N=458)
Age, y56 (47, 66)55 (47, 64)58 (47, 69)65 (56, 73)64 (55, 73)66 (57, 75)
Medical history
Hypertension77.075.579.264.966.561.1
Diabetes mellitus33.427.741.331.832.629.9
Hyperlipidemia37.938.037.751.855.144.1
Atrial fibrillation4.26.11.511.713.18.3
Ejection fraction23 (16, 30)20 (15, 30)25 (20, 30)25 (20, 30)25 (20, 30)25 (20, 30)
NYHA class
I4.44.83.86.36.07.2
II21.023.118.222.823.720.7
III39.637.642.342.943.541.5
IV35.034.535.628.026.830.6
Ischemic heart disease35.336.933.162.969.647.2
MI15.816.614.631.235.621.0
PCI9.710.97.918.219.714.6
CABG10.512.97.230.735.519.4
PVD7.26.67.911.412.29.6
Cerebrovascular disease9.77.712.313.614.411.8
COPD6.27.64.410.010.68.5
Systolic blood pressure135 (119, 151)133 (118, 149)138 (121, 155)130 (114, 146)129 (114, 144)131 (115, 150)
DBP83 (72, 94)84 (73, 96)81 (70, 93)76 (66, 86)77 (68, 87)73 (64, 82)
Heart rate81 (70, 94)81 (69, 93)83 (71, 96)80 (68, 94)79 (67, 92)84 (72, 98)
BMI28.7 (24.1, 34.3)28.1 (24.0, 33.3)29.4 (24.2, 35.6)27.4 (23.9, 31.6)27.7 (24.5, 31.7)26.2 (22.4, 31.2)
GFR71.2 (52.2, 88.7)74.5 (55.2, 90.3)68.2 (48.1, 86.1)64.9 (48.8, 81.8)66.2 (50.1, 83.2)62.6 (45.6, 78.6)
Valvular heart disease17.114.021.321.118.826.4
Left ventricular hypertrophy57.763.250.344.847.738.3
Medications
Beta‐blockers80.282.876.477.778.076.9
ACE‐I82.984.580.877.678.076.6
ARB15.315.515.118.617.122.3
ICD placement during follow‐up28.230.125.628.230.622.7
  • All values are reported as median (interquartile range) or percent. ACE‐I indicates angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor; ARB, angiotensin receptor blocker; BMI, body mass index; CABG, coronary artery bypass grafting; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; DBP, diastolic blood pressure; GFR, glomerular filtration rate; ICD, implantable cardioverter defibrillator; MI, myocardial infarction; NYHA, New York Heart Association; PCI, percutaneous coronary intervention; PVD, peripheral vascular disease.