Table 6. Association of Husband Smoking With Wife's Hypertension According to Ethnicitya
HanUygurZhuangHuiMiaoTujiaYiMongoliaManchuTibetanOthers
Couples smoking status
Neither‐smoker1.001.001.001.001.001.001.001.001.001.001.00
Husband‐only1.30 (1.28–1.32)0.97 (0.84–1.10)1.27 (1.14–1.41)1.09 (0.95–1.25)1.16 (1.00–1.34)1.29 (1.12–1.49)1.03 (0.89–1.18)0.89 (0.75–1.07)1.31 (1.09–1.56)0.99 (0.84–1.16)1.36 (1.27–1.45)
Wife‐only1.46 (1.22–1.75)2.83 (0.78–10.29)3.68 (1.06–12.73)···2.71 (0.83–8.90)2.29 (0.68–7.71)0.91 (0.28–2.91)2.09 (1.06–4.13)0.87 (0.21–3.66)0.86 (0.20–3.62)1.68 (0.77–3.65)
Mixed1.48 (1.32–1.66)0.72 (0.10–5.24)1.05 (0.25–4.34)4.69 (2.44–9.00)0.77 (0.19–3.17)1.39 (0.59–3.25)1.21 (0.70–2.10)0.94 (0.42–2.09)2.92 (1.59–5.36)0.68 (0.21–2.21)1.43 (0.86–2.38)
Spouse smoking amount, cigarettes per dayb
01.001.001.001.001.001.001.001.001.001.001.00
1 to 51.25 (1.21–1.28)0.95 (0.78–1.16)1.17 (0.93–1.48)1.14 (0.90–1.44)0.95 (0.66–1.35)1.05 (0.71–1.55)0.92 (0.69–1.22)0.86 (0.59–1.25)0.89 (0.59–1.36)1.03 (0.76–1.39)1.28 (1.11–1.48)
6 to 101.26 (1.23–1.29)1.00 (0.82–1.22)1.32 (1.15–1.52)1.10 (0.91–1.33)1.09 (0.88–1.34)1.19 (0.98–1.46)0.96 (0.79–1.16)0.90 (0.70–1.16)1.28 (1.00–1.63)0.99 (0.78–1.27)1.21 (1.09–1.33)
11 to 151.36 (1.30–1.42)0.67 (0.37–1.22)1.18 (0.85–1.63)1.02 (0.63–1.63)0.92 (0.60–1.40)1.26 (0.85–1.87)1.19 (0.87–1.63)0.97 (0.57–1.65)1.33 (0.70–2.54)0.70 (0.41–1.21)1.17 (0.97–1.40)
16 to 201.38 (1.34–1.41)1.01 (0.72–1.43)1.18 (1.00–1.40)1.17 (0.91–1.49)1.31 (1.06–1.61)1.38 (1.14–1.67)1.10 (0.91–1.33)0.83 (0.63–1.11)1.51 (1.18–1.94)1.11 (0.83–1.48)1.57 (1.43–1.72)
≥211.72 (1.59–1.85)1.19 (0.38–3.75)2.22 (1.43–3.43)1.10 (0.44–2.70)1.94 (1.14–3.31)1.93 (1.20–3.12)1.31 (0.74–2.32)1.10 (0.51–2.40)2.66 (1.54–4.60)0.58 (0.23–1.44)2.04 (1.61–2.59)
P for trend <0.00010.61<0.00010.470.01<0.00010.220.43<0.00010.97<0.0001
Cumulative exposure of husband smoking (pack‐marriage years)c, d
01.001.001.001.001.001.001.001.001.001.001.00
0.1 to 2.01.23 (1.20–1.26)0.87 (0.71–1.07)1.59 (1.33–1.90)1.19 (0.97–1.45)1.14 (0.89–1.45)0.99 (0.71–1.36)0.86 (0.69–1.08)0.78 (0.55–1.12)1.07 (0.76–1.49)1.36 (1.05–1.75)1.30 (1.17–1.45)
2.1 to 4.01.38 (1.33–1.43)0.91 (0.68–1.23)1.35 (1.04–1.75)0.96 (0.70–1.30)1.33 (0.97–1.81)1.49 (1.03–2.14)0.94 (0.72–1.22)1.28 (0.90–1.81)1.17 (0.79–1.72)0.72 (0.47–1.11)1.33 (1.15–1.52)
4.1 to 6.01.43 (1.37–1.50)0.70 (0.39–1.14)1.45 (1.04–2.02)1.06 (0.71–1.59)1.56 (1.08–2.25)1.30 (0.78–2.18)0.92 (0.65–1.30)0.84 (0.52–1.36)1.26 (0.80–1.99)1.17 (0.72–1.88)1.27 (1.06–1.52)
6.1 to 8.01.55 (1.46–1.65)0.94 (0.50–1.77)1.51 (1.00–2.31)0.77 (0.42–1.42)1.57 (0.96–2.56)1.67 (0.96–2.91)0.85 (0.53–1.36)0.83 (0.47–1.47)1.53 (0.94–2.48)0.54 (0.20–1.48)1.34 (1.06–1.69)
>8.01.64 (1.57–1.71)1.53 (1.00–2.34)1.98 (1.46–2.68)1.07 (0.72–1.59)1.21 (0.82–1.81)2.20 (1.61–3.01)1.46 (1.07–1.98)0.85 (0.59–1.23)1.31 (0.97–1.76)1.27 (0.77–2.08)1.63 (1.38–1.92)
P for trend <0.00010.88<0.00010.590.01<0.00010.570.650.020.63<0.0001
  • a Odds ratios (95% CI) were adjusted for age, urban inhabitants, higher school education, body mass index, and alcohol consumption.

  • b Couples with female active smoking were excluded from this analysis.

  • c Pack‐marriage year were used to evaluate the cumulative exposure of spouse smoking, calculated by multiplying the number of packs of cigarettes husband smoked per day by the number of marriage duration.

  • d Couples with female active smoking and missing marriage duration were excluded from this analysis.