Table 4. Risk of CVD Events According to the CVH Score—Multi‐Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, 2000‐2013a
Low CVH (0‐7 Points) N=2456Moderate CVH (8‐11 Points) N=3097High CVH (12‐14 Points) N=408
CVEs, n (%)479 (19.5)340 (11.0)18 (4.4)
White185 (21.8)175 (13.0)12 (5.9)
Black162 (19.0)63 (9.3)0 (0)
Hispanic118 (18.5)65 (10.1)1 (0.6)
Chinese14 (12.4)37 (8.7)5
Overall HR (95%CI)1.00.63 (0.51‐0.78)0.33 (0.18‐0.59)
White1.00.69 (0.55‐0.87)0.36 (0.19‐0.68)
Black1.00.46 (0.35‐0.62)···b
Hispanic1.00.59 (0.44‐0.80)0.14 (0.02‐0.97)
Chinese1.00.90 (0.48‐1.67)0.50 (0.18‐1.42)
Overall CAC‐adjusted HR (95%CI)1.00.72 (0.59‐0.88)0.28 (0.14‐0.57)
White1.00.70 (0.57‐0.87)0.40 (0.22‐0.72)
Black1.00.50 (0.37‐0.67)···b
Hispanic1.00.68 (0.50‐0.93)0.16 (0.02‐1.15)
Chinese1.01.0 (0.54‐1.86)0.71 (0.25‐2.0)
Overall CIMT‐adjusted HR (95%CI)c1.00.63 (0.52‐0.77)0.21 (0.10‐0.43)
White1.00.65 (0.53‐0.81)0.35 (0.19‐0.63)
Black1.00.45 (0.34‐0.7)···b
Hispanic1.00.62 (0.45‐0.84)0.15 (0.02‐1.05)
Chinese1.00.92 (0.49‐1.71)0.54 (0.19‐1.55)
Overall LV mass‐adjusted HR (95%CI)d1.00.60 (0.47‐0.76)0.23 (0.11‐0.50)
White1.00.67 (0.52‐0.86)0.41 (0.22‐0.77)
Black1.00.46 (0.32‐0.66)···b
Hispanic1.00.71 (0.49‐1.03)0.22 (0.03‐1.59)
Chinese1.00.84 (0.42‐1.70)0.76 (0.25‐2.28)
Overall CAC‐CIMT‐LV mass–adjusted HR (95%CI)e1.00.73 (0.59‐0.89)0.49 (0.28‐0.88)
White1.00.74 (0.57‐0.95)0.51 (0.27‐0.96)
Black1.00.46 (0.32‐0.67)···b
Hispanic1.00.82 (0.56‐1.20)0.25 (0.04‐1.83)
Chinese1.00.96 (0.47‐1.95)1.01 (0.33‐3.08)
  • Cardiovascular disease was defined as definite or probable myocardial infarction, death due to coronary heart disease, resuscitated cardiac arrest, coronary revascularization, fatal or nonfatal stroke, definite or probable heart failure, peripheral arterial disease, and cardiovascular disease death. CAC indicates coronary artery calcium; CIMT, carotid intima‐media thickness; CVD, cardiovascular disease; CVEs, cardiovascular events; CVH, cardiovascular health; HR, hazard ratio; LV, left ventricular.

  • a All models were adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, and education.

  • b Unable to calculate HR because there were no events in this category.

  • c 5889 participants had complete data for CIMT.

  • d 4384 participants had complete data for LV mass.

  • e 4343 participants had complete data for CAC, CIMT, and LV mass.