Table 2. Outcome in Relation to Treatment
Outcomes, No. of Events/Person Time in units of 100 years (Event Rate)All Patients (n=112 648)Stratification
CHF and AF (n=11 489)CHF and No AF (n=31 676)P Value for InteractionNo CHF and AF (n=10 066)No CHF and No AF (n=59 417)P Value for Interaction
All‐cause mortality17 121/2121.4 (8.1)3964/176.1 (22.5)5474/590.7 (9.3)···2383/173.5 (13.7)5300/1181.1 (4.5)···
No ACEI/ARB6115/477.9 (12.8)1134/25.3 (44.9)1450/57.1 (25.4)···1119/53.2 (21.0)2412/342.3 (7.0)···
ACEI/ARB11 006/1643.5 (6.7)2830/150.8 (18.8)4024/533.6 (7.5)···1264/120.3 (10.5)2888/838.8 (3.4)···
Unadjusted HR0.53 (0.52–0.55)0.45 (0.42–0.49)0.32 (0.30–0.34)<0.0010.51 (0.47–0.55)0.49 (0.46–0.52)0.42
Adjusted HR0.73 (0.71–0.76)0.75 (0.70–0.81)0.65 (0.60–0.69)0.0030.82 (0.75–0.90)0.76 (0.72–0.81)0.18
Cardiovascular mortality11 015/2121.4 (5.2)2854/176.1 (16.2)3660/590.7 (6.2)···1546/173.5 (8.9)2955/1181.1 (2.5)···
No ACEI/ARB3732/477.9 (7.8)809/25.3 (32.0)970/57.1 (17.0)···696/53.2 (13.1)1257/342.3 (3.7)···
ACEI/ARB7283/1643.5 (4.4)2045/150.8 (13.6)2690/533.6 (5.0)···850/120.3 (7.1)1698/838.8 (2.0)···
Unadjusted HR0.58 (0.56–0.60)0.47 (0.43–0.50)0.33 (0.31–0.35)<0.0010.56 (0.50–0.61)0.56 (0.52–0.60)0.98
Adjusted HR0.81 (0.78–0.85)0.78 (0.71–0.86)0.67 (0.62–0.73)0.020.91 (0.82–1.02)0.91 (0.84–0.99)0.94
MI20 802/1889.7 (11.0)3092/150.2 (20.6)6551/518.8 (12.6)···2427/149.8 (16.2)8732/1070.9 (8.2)···
No ACEI/ARB5609/432.4 (13.0)713/21.1 (33.7)1179/50.1 (23.5)···898/46.6 (19.3)2819/314.6 (9.0)···
ACEI/ARB15 193/1457.2 (10.4)2379/129.0 (18.4)5372/468.7 (11.5)···1529/103.3 (14.8)5913/756.2 (7.8)···
Unadjusted HR0.85 (0.82–0.87)0.68 (0.62–0.73)0.61 (0.57–0.65)0.050.81 (0.75–0.88)0.89 (0.85–0.93)0.06
Adjusted HR0.95 (0.92–0.98)0.86 (0.78–0.94)0.84 (0.79–0.90)0.730.97 (0.88–1.06)1.02 (0.97–1.07)0.35
Stroke4620/2080.6 (2.2)910/169.1 (5.4)1244/579.3 (2.1)···848/166.7 (5.1)1618/1165.4 (1.4)···
No ACEI/ARB1198/468.9 (2.6)170/24.2 (7.0)208/55.7 (3.7)···297/51.1 (5.8)523/337.9 (1.5)···
ACEI/ARB3422/1611.7 (2.1)740/145.0 (5.1)1036/523.7 (2.0)···551/115.6 (4.8)1095/827.5 (1.3)···
Unadjusted HR0.84 (0.79–0.90)0.79 (0.67–0.94)0.57 (0.49–0.67)0.010.84 (0.73–0.97)0.85 (0.77–0.95)0.83
Adjusted HR0.96 (0.89–1.03)1.02 (0.85–1.22)0.80 (0.68–0.95)0.061.03 (0.88–1.20)0.98 (0.87–1.10)0.58
New‐onset AF4928/1713.3 (2.9)2105/566.3 (3.7)2823/1147.0 (2.5)
No ACEI/ARB1110/388.7 (2.9)303/54.8 (5.5)807/333.9 (2.4)
ACEI/ARB3818/1324.6 (2.9)1802/511.5 (3.5)2016/813.1 (2.5)
Unadjusted HR1.03 (0.96–1.10)0.71 (0.63–0.80)1.03 (0.95–1.12)
Adjusted HR1.07 (1.00–1.15)0.96 (0.84–1.10)1.12 (1.02–1.22)
  • Number and incidence rate of events and crude and adjusted hazard ratios for outcomes stratified by ACEI and/or ARB treatment in patients with and without congestive heart failure and atrial fibrillation. Crude event rates were calculated according to the number of events per 100 person‐years. Unadjusted and adjusted HR is given with a 95% confidence interval. ACEI indicates angiotensin‐converting enzyme inhibitors; AF, atrial fibrillation; ARB, angiotensin II receptor blockers; CHF, congestive heart failure; HR, hazard ratio; MI, myocardial infarction.