Table 2. Factors Associated With CPR Training in Middle Schools According to Teachers
Variable From Questionnaire SurveyOR (95% CI)P ValueOR (95% CI) Adjusted for the Random Effect of SchoolP Value
Knowledgea
CPR training of students is mandatory before graduation from middle schoola4.97 (3.09‐7.98)<0.0014.19 (2.65‐6.62)<0.001
Background variables
Teacher characteristics
Female sex1.71 (1.12‐2.62)0.0131.28 (0.91‐1.81)0.15
Family member, friend, or acquaintance with previous cardiac arresta1.59 (1.10‐2.28)0.0131.56 (1.13‐2.15)0.010
Had thought about CPR training of students before this surveya3.14 (1.89‐5.22)<0.0012.34 (1.52‐3.61)<0.001
School characteristics
AED presenta1.45 (1.02‐2.07)0.0381.41 (0.99‐2.01)0.052
Presence of a staff member who is very passionate about CPR traininga2.13 (1.46‐3.11)<0.0012.04 (1.40‐2.97)<0.001
School leadership has reported CPR training is mandatorya, b2.95 (1.91‐4.55)<0.001······
School leadership has reported CPR training should be mandatorya, b2.71 (1.76‐4.19)<0.001······
Direct measure of teachers' attitudes toward CPR training of studentsa
CPR training should be mandatory3.12 (1.52‐6.42)0.0022.38 (1.37‐4.12)0.002
Indirect measures of teachers' attitudes toward CPR training of studentsc
CPR training empowers students to take action in emergency situations1.90 (1.31‐2.74)<0.0011.70 (1.18‐2.45)0.004
CPR training increases students' understanding of being a citizen1.70 (1.18‐2.43)0.0041.52 (1.11‐2.09)0.009
CPR training of students will increase bystander CPR in the long term1.79 (1.10‐2.91)0.0191.61 (1.04‐2.48)0.032
Students do not find CPR training uncomfortable/scary2.78 (1.76‐4.38)<0.0012.27 (1.58‐3.28)<0.001
Direct measure of pressure teachers feel to train students in CPRc
To what degree is it expected from you, as a teacher at your school, that students are trained in CPR?2.91 (1.54‐5.52)0.0012.04 (1.07‐3.89)0.031
Indirect measures of pressure teachers feel to train students in CPRd
During the past 3 years, how many of graduating classes (middle school) do you think have completed CPR training?17.3 (10.7‐28.0)<0.00113.5 (8.39‐21.7)<0.001
How many middle schools do you think have implemented CPR training?12.98 (5.58‐30.17)<0.0019.68 (4.65‐20.1)<0.001
The following groups think/express that students should be trained in CPRc
Students/the student council2.04 (1.80‐3.87)0.0301.93 (1.11‐3.34)0.019
Parents/parents' committee2.62 (1.60‐4.30)<0.0012.21 (1.42‐3.42)<0.001
Teachers2.10 (1.43‐3.08)<0.0011.84 (1.30‐2.59)<0.001
The school leadership2.02 (1.33‐3.08)0.0011.90 (1.28‐2.80)0.001
Indirect measure of teachers' perceived ability to train students in CPR
Presence of a CPR training coordinator at your schoola3.55 (2.24‐5.62)<0.0013.01 (1.84‐4.92)<0.001
At the moment, do you feel you have the skills to train students in CPR?c3.16 (1.98‐5.04)<0.0012.78 (1.74‐4.45)<0.001
The school provides clear guidelines as to who is responsible for CPR training that is conducted at your schoolc1.90 (1.25‐2.88)0.0031.57 (1.07‐2.29)0.020
I think it is easy to acquire good CPR training materialc2.47 (1.71‐3.55)<0.0012.08 (1.57‐2.76)<0.001
  • AED indicates automated external defibrillators; CPR, cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

  • a Yes vs no.

  • b Subanalysis only including teachers whose leadership also responded to this item (n=344).

  • c Dichotomized from a 5‐point Likert scale, the 2 lowest levels vs the 3 highest levels.

  • d Dichotimized from a 5‐point Likert scale, all and most classes (schools) vs half or less than half of the classes (schools).