Table 4. Association Between BMD of the Total Hip or Femoral Neck and Incident Heart Failure Stratified by Sex
GroupWomen (n=734)Men (n=516)
Age‐Adjusted HRa (95% CI)Fully Adjustedb HRa (95% CI)Age‐Adjusted HRa (95% CI)Fully Adjustedb HRa (95% CI)
Total hip BMD
Nonblack 0.88 (0.79–0.99)
P=0.036
0.97 (0.85–1.10)
P=0.647
1.09 (0.98–1.21)
P=0.096
1.13 (1.01–1.26)
P=0.034
Black 0.99 (0.80–1.22)
P=0.915
1.11 (0.89–1.39)
P=0.358
0.74 (0.59–0.93)
P=0.011
0.74 (0.59–0.94)
P=0.014
Interaction of BMD with racec 1.12 (0.88–1.42)
P=0.354
1.14 (0.90–1.46)
P=0.273
0.68 (0.53–0.87)
P=0.003
0.66 (0.51–0.85)
P=0.001
Femoral neck BMD
Nonblack 0.88 (0.77–1.01)
P=0.060
0.97 (0.84–1.12)
P=0.692
1.08 (0.96–1.22)
P=0.204
1.14 (0.99–1.30)
P=0.062
Black 0.94 (0.74–1.20)
P=0.635
1.08 (0.84–1.38)
P=0.533
0.79 (0.63–1.00)
P=0.051
0.79 (0.62–1.01)
P=0.057
Interaction of BMD with racec 1.07 (0.82–1.41)
P=0.613
1.11 (0.84–1.46)
P=0.466
0.74 (0.57–0.95)
P=0.020
0.70 (0.53–0.91)
P=0.009
  • a Per 0.1 g/cm2 decrement in bone mineral density (BMD).

  • b Adjusted for age, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, antihypertensive medication, diabetes mellitus, smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, estrogen replacement (women), prevalent coronary heart disease, prevalent stroke or transient ischemic attack, prevalent peripheral arterial disease, prevalent atrial fibrillation, estimated glomerular filtration rate, forced expiratory volume in 1 second, and C‐reactive protein.

  • c Ratio of hazard ratio (HR) between black and nonblack groups.