Table 1. Baseline Characteristics of the Study Cohort Stratified by Sex and Race
CharacteristicsWomenMen
Black (n=145)Nonblack (n=589)P ValueBlack (n=91)Nonblack (n=425)P Value
Age, y74.2±4.976.3±4.2<0.00174.8±4.677.1±4.7<0.001
Body mass index, kg/m229.3±4.626.3±4.8<0.00126.7±3.826.6±3.6<0.001
Waist circumference, cm101.2±14.293.6±14.3<0.00195.9±10.998.4±9.3<0.001
Systolic blood pressure, mm Hg136±19134±21<0.001134±22131±19<0.001
Antihypertensive medication,a No. (%)104 (72)263 (45)<0.00148 (53)216 (51)0.739
Diabetes mellitus, No. (%)37 (26)51 (9)<0.00124 (26)66 (16)0.013
Smoking, No. (%)0.328<0.001
Never smoker65 (45)302 (51)22 (24)114 (27)
Former smoker67 (46)233 (40)52 (57)287 (68)
Current smoker13 (9)54 (9)17 (19)24 (6)
Alcohol, drinks per wk0 (0–0)0 (0–1)<0.0010 (0–3)1 (0–7)<0.001
Physical activity, kcal per wk490 (180–1255)930 (322.5–2017.5)<0.001867 (315–1843)1413 (540–3175)<0.001
Low‐density lipoprotein, mg/dL134±38132±32<0.001120±31122±29<0.001
High‐density lipoprotein, mg/dL58±1459±15<0.00152±1146±11<0.001
Triglycerides, mg/dL103 (79–142)124 (90–170)<0.00191 (73–130)112 (83–158)<0.001
Lipid‐lowering medication, No. (%)14 (10)69 (12)<0.0015 (5)35 (8)<0.001
Aspirin, No. (%)40 (28)237 (40)<0.00129 (32)183 (43)<0.001
Digitalis, No. (%)8 (6)35 (6)<0.0017 (8)40 (9)<0.001
Estrogen use, No. (%)15 (10)122 (21)0.004······
Prevalent coronary heart disease, No. (%)29 (20)82 (14)0.06717 (19)128 (30)0.028
Prevalent stroke/transient ischemic attack, No. (%)10 (7)17 (3)0.02210 (11)37 (9)0.492
Prevalent peripheral arterial disease, No. (%)3 (2)7 (1)0.4135 (5)24 (6)0.954
Prevalent atrial fibrillation, No. (%)8 (6)30 (5)0.8373 (3)35 (8)0.102
Serum creatinine, mg/dL0.9±0.30.9±0.2<0.0011.2±0.31.2±0.2<0.001
Estimated glomerular filtration rate (cystatin‐based), mL/min per 1.73 m285±2377±18<0.00182±1771±15<0.001
Forced expiratory volume in 1 s, L1.6±0.41.8±0.4<0.0012.1±0.62.5±0.6<0.001
C‐reactive protein, mg/L4.9 (2.0–9.3)2.4 (1.1–5.6)<0.0012.2 (1.0–4.2)1.9 (1.0–4.0)<0.001
Total hip BMD, g/cm20.9±0.10.7±0.1<0.0011.0±0.20.9±0.2<0.001
Femoral neck BMD, g/cm20.8±0.10.6±0.1<0.0010.9±0.20.8±0.1<0.001
Total hip, WHO categories, No. (%)<0.0010.004
Normal73 (50)83 (14)75 (82)283 (67)
Osteopenia53 (37)282 (48)16 (18)120 (28)
Osteoporosis19 (13)224 (38)0 (0)22 (5)
Femoral neck, WHO categories, No. (%)<0.001<0.001
Normal58 (40)53 (9)64 (70)181 (43)
Osteopenia69 (48)271 (46)24 (26)205 (48)
Osteoporosis18 (12)265 (45)3 (3)39 (9)
  • Data for continuous variables are presented as mean±SD or median (interquartile range). BMD indicates bone mineral density; WHO, World Health Organization.

  • a Antihypertensive medication defined as the use of β‐blockers, calcium channel blockers, angiotensin‐converting enzyme inhibitors, vasodilators, or diuretics.