Table 1. Baseline Characteristics of the Study Population
CharacteristicStudy Cohort n=331No AF n=179 (54%)PAF n=129 (39%)PeAF n=23 (6.9%)
Female, n (%)75 (22.7)43 (24)30 (23)2 (8.6)
Age, mean yearsa57.8±12.854.3±13.661.3±10.566.0±9.2
Left ventricular ejection fraction, %a20.0±6.619.2±7.020.6±5.922.9±6.2
LA volume >40 mL/m2, n (%)253 (76.4)128 (72.0)105 (81.4)20 (87.0)
PR interval >200 ms, %a118.714.830.4
Ischemic cardiomyopathy, n (%)a124 (37.5)56 (31.2)54 (41.9)14 (60.9)
Valvular heart disease, n (%)225 (68.0)117 (65.3)91 (70.5)17 (73.9)
Hypertension, n (%)250 (75.5)135 (75.4)99 (76.7)16 (69.6)
Diabetes mellitus, n (%)163 (49.2)82 (45.8)69 (53.4)12 (52.1)
Thyroid disease, n (%)83 (24.8)36 (20.6)38 (29.5)8 (34.8)
Obstructive sleep apnea, n (%)99 (30.0)53 (30.0)38 (29.5)8 (34.8)
COPD, n (%)90 (27)44 (24.6)38 (29.5)8 (34.8)
CABG, n (%)111 (33.5)52 (29.1)48 (37.2)11 (47.8)
Baseline creatinine, mg/dL1.6±0.91.6±1.01.7±0.91.6±0.6
Baseline albumin, g/dL3.5±0.53.5±0.63.6±0.53.6±0.5
  • AF indicates atrial fibrillation; CABG, coronary arterial bypass grafting; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; LA, left atria; PAF, paroxysmal atrial fibrillation; PeAF, persistent or permanent atrial fibrillation.

  • a P<0.05 for χ2 or ANOVA comparison between groups.