Table 3. Future Investigations Into Patients With Secondary Prevention ICDs
Future Investigations
Outcomes in populations not represented in trials
 Elderly (>70 years old)
 Women
 Severely symptomatic heart failure (e.g. NYHA class IV symptoms)
 Chronic kidney disease
 Severely depressed LVEF
 Nonwhite race
Impact of care strategies
 ICD programming
 Goal‐directed medical therapy (BB, ACE‐I, MRA) and shock risk
Risk models
 Device‐related complications
 Competing outcomes of arrhythmic vs nonarrhythmic death
Outcomes beyond death
 ICD therapies (shocks, antitachycardia pacing)
 Quality of life
 Physical function/independence
  • ACE‐I indicates angiotensin‐converting enzyme inhibitor; BB, β‐blockers; ICD, implantable cardioverter defibrillator; LVEF, left ventricular ejection fraction; MRA, mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist, NYHA, New York Heart Association.