Table 3. Relative Risks and 95% Confidence Intervals for All‐Cause and Cardiovascular Disease–Related Inpatient and Outpatient Encounters Over 1 Year of Follow‐Up by Number of Ideal Life's Simple 7 Factors
Number of Ideal Life's Simple 7 FactorsaP Trend
0 to 1 (N=1079)2 (N=1947)3 (N=1814)4 (N=1024)5 to 7 (N=398)
All‐cause encounters
Inpatient, N (%)197 (18.3%)308 (15.8%)234 (12.9%)132 (12.9%)41 (10.3%)
Unadjusted, RR (95% CI)1.00 (Ref)0.86 (0.71, 1.03)0.70 (0.58, 0.83)0.69 (0.56, 0.86)0.55 (0.40, 0.77)<0.001
Adjusted, RR (95% CI)1.00 (Ref)0.86 (0.72, 1.03)0.69 (0.57, 0.82)0.67 (0.54, 0.83)0.55 (0.39, 0.76)<0.001
Outpatient, N (%)1045 (96.8%)1876 (96.4%)1760 (97.0%)982 (95.9%)390 (97.8%)
Unadjusted, RR (95% CI)1.00 (Ref)1.00 (0.98, 1.01)1.00 (0.99, 1.02)0.99 (0.97, 1.01)1.01 (0.99, 1.03)0.871
Adjusted, RR (95% CI)1.00 (Ref)0.99 (0.98, 1.01)1.00 (0.98, 1.01)0.98 (0.96, 1.00)1.00 (0.98, 1.02)0.407
CVD‐related encountersb
Inpatient, N (%)56 (5.2%)96 (4.9%)74 (4.1%)46 (4.5%)6 (1.6%)
Unadjusted, RR (95% CI)1.00 (Ref)0.94 (0.67, 1.32)0.78 (0.55, 1.11)0.85 (0.57, 1.26)0.29 (0.12, 0.70)0.007
Adjusted, RR (95% CI)1.00 (Ref)0.96 (0.68, 1.35)0.79 (0.55, 1.13)0.85 (0.57, 1.28)0.31 (0.13, 0.73)0.010
Outpatient, N (%)791 (73.3%)1314 (67.5%)1164 (64.2%)592 (57.8%)167 (41.9%)
Unadjusted, RR (95% CI)1.00 (Ref)0.92 (0.87, 0.97)0.87 (0.83, 0.92)0.79 (0.73, 0.84)0.57 (0.50, 0.65)<0.001
Adjusted, RR (95% CI)1.00 (Ref)0.93 (0.89, 0.98)0.90 (0.85, 0.94)0.81 (0.75, 0.87)0.60 (0.53, 0.68)<0.001
  • Raw values were calculated for the unadjusted model; the estimated adjusted values were based on inclusion of age, race, sex, education, income, and marital status. The absolute number of participants and the number of participants with inpatient and outpatient encounters in each category of Life's Simple 7 factors was calculated as the average across multiple imputations and rounded to the closest integer number. CI indicates confidence interval; CVD, cardiovascular disease; RR, relative risk.

  • a Life's Simple 7 factors include cigarette smoking, physical activity, diet, body mass index, blood pressure, cholesterol, and glucose and ideal levels are defined in Table 1.

  • b CVD‐related healthcare encounters were defined as claims with the International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD‐9‐CM) primary diagnosis codes 390 to 459 and 745 to 747.