Table 4. Mean Cost and Cost Differences for All‐Cause Expenditures Over 1 Year of Follow‐Up by Number of Ideal Life's Simple 7 Factors
ExpendituresNumber of Ideal Life's Simple 7 FactorsaP Trend
0 to 1 (N=1079)2 (N=1947)3 (N=1814)4 (N=1024)5 to 7 (N=398)
Inpatient, N (%)197 (18.3%)308 (15.8%)234 (12.9%)132 (12.9%)41 (10.3%)
Mean cost (95% CI)$3995 ($2944, $5047)$2799 ($2237, $3361)$2402 ($1805, $2998)$2140 ($1623, $2656)$1250 ($760, $1740)
Unadjusted mean cost difference (95% CI)$0 (Ref)−$1197 (−$2302, −$91)−$1594 (−$2702, −$486)−$1856 (−$3001, −$711)−$2745 (−$3894, −$1596)<0.001
Adjusted mean cost difference (95% CI)$0 (Ref)−$1119 (−$2152, −$87)−$1471 (−$2518, −$424)−$1730 (−$2840, −$621)−$2551 (−$3667, −$1435)<0.001
Outpatient, N (%)1045 (96.8%)1876 (96.4%)1760 (97.0%)982 (95.9%)390 (97.8%)
Mean cost (95% CI)$5166 ($4626, $5706)$4310 ($3972, $4648)$3737 ($3479, $3996)$3652 ($3313, $3990)$2853 ($2423, $3282)
Unadjusted mean cost difference (95% CI)$0 (Ref)−$856 (−$1449, −$264)−$1428 (−$1998, −$859)−$1514 (−$2137, −$891)−$2313 (−$2982, −$1645)<0.001
Adjusted mean cost difference (95% CI)$0 (Ref)−$891 (−$1495, −$287)−$1479 (−$2060, −$898)−$1639 (−$2276, −$1002)−$2410 (−$3089, −$1731)<0.001
Total, N (%)1045 (96.8%)1876 (96.4%)1760 (97.0%)982 (95.9%)390 (97.8%)
Mean cost (95% CI)$9147 ($7752, $10 542)$7117 ($6338, $7896)$6149 ($5402, $6897)$5771 ($5031, $6511)$4111 ($3328, $4894)
Unadjusted mean cost difference (95% CI)$0 (Ref)−$2030 (−$3527, −$533)−$2998 (−$4463, −$1532)−$3376 (−$4896, −$1856)−$5036 (−$6599, −$3474)<0.001
Adjusted mean cost difference (95% CI)$0 (Ref)−$2002 (−$3483, −$520)−$2919 (−$4384, −$1454)−$3504 (−$5028, −$1980)−$5016 (−$6577, −$3454)<0.001
  • Expenditures were adjusted to third quarter 2015 US dollars using price indices for the GDP. Adjusted mean cost differences include adjustment for age, race, sex, education, income, and marital status. The absolute number of participants and the number of participants with inpatient, outpatient, and total encounters in each category of Life's Simple 7 factors was calculated as the average across multiple imputations and rounded to the closest integer number. CI indicates confidence interval; GDP, gross domestic product; SE, standard error. Separate imputations were conducted for inpatient, outpatient and total expenditures. Therefore, inpatient and outpatient expenditures do not sum exactly to the total expenditures.

  • a Life's Simple 7 factors include cigarette smoking, physical activity, diet, body mass index, blood pressure, cholesterol, and glucose, and ideal levels are listed in Table 1.