Table 3. Adjusted Hazard Ratios for Dying After a Stroke Associated With Marital History
Hazard Ratio (95% CI)
Model 1: Demographic FactorsModel 2: Socioeconomic FactorsModel 3: Psychosocial FactorsModel 4: Behavioral FactorsModel 5: Physiological FactorsModel 6: Full Model
Marital history
Continuously married1.001.001.001.001.001.00
Never married1.71 (1.30–2.24)1.66 (1.26–2.18)1.51 (1.11–2.05)1.68 (1.28–2.20)1.52 (1.17–1.99)1.34 (0.99–1.81)
 Remarried
1 marital loss1.18 (1.01–1.40)1.18 (1.01–1.40)1.19 (1.00–1.41)1.20 (1.02–1.42)1.19 (1.01–1.41)1.22 (1.03–1.44)
2+ marital losses1.44 (1.20–1.88)1.43 (1.09–1.87)1.44 (1.09–1.89)1.42 (1.09–1.85)1.45 (1.13–1.86)1.48 (1.15–1.91)
 Divorced
1 marital loss1.15 (0.91–1.44)1.11 (0.88–1.40)1.12 (0.89–1.42)1.12 (0.89–1.41)0.98 (0.76–1.27)0.96 (0.74–1.24)
2+ marital losses1.39 (1.04–1.86)1.35 (1.01–1.81)1.42 (1.07–1.89)1.41 (1.07–1.86)1.47 (1.13–1.92)1.50 (1.15–1.96)
 Widowed
1 marital loss1.22 (1.06–1.40)1.18 (1.03–1.36)1.20 (1.05–1.38)1.22 (1.06–1.39)1.13 (0.98–1.30)1.12 (0.97–1.29)
2+ marital losses1.40 (1.13–1.74)1.37 (1.10–1.70)1.39 (1.11–1.72)1.34 (1.10–1.66)1.29 (1.04–1.60)1.25 (1.01–1.54)
AIC value18 433.1318 458.1118 457.5218 420.7418 255.5318 321.63
  • The reference group is continuously married. Marital loss includes the number of divorces and/or widowhoods. Model 1 adjusted for age at stroke onset, sex, race, ethnicity, proxy interview, and geographic region. Model 2 adjusted for model 1 covariates and included education level, household income, and health insurance. Model 3 adjusted for model 1 covariates and included any children, nearby friends/relatives, religious attendance, and depressive symptoms. Model 4 adjusted for model 1 covariates and included smoking, alcohol use, physical exercise, and hypertension medication use. Model 5 adjusted for model 1 covariates and included body mass index, functional disability, other diagnosed chronic illness, and recurrent stroke. Model 6 adjusted for all covariates. AIC indicates Akaike information criteria.