Table 1. Demographic and Clinical Characteristics of the Study Population
AllNo Heparin BridgingHeparin BridgingP Value
N=90 826N=63 679 (70.1%)N=27 147 (29.9%)
Age, mean (SD), y72.3 (11.7)72.6 (11.9)71.5 (11.4)<0.001a
Women, n (%)45 316 (49.9)32 702 (51.4)12 614 (46.5)<0.001b
Social deprivation index (quintiles), n (%)
115 484 (17.9)10 873 (17.9)4611 (17.8)0.110b
217 295 (20.0)12 036 (19.8)5259 (20.3)
317 399 (20.1)12 210 (20.1)5189 (20.0)
418 121 (20.9)12 633 (20.8)5488 (21.2)
518 330 (21.2)12 973 (21.4)5357 (20.7)
Missing data4197 (4.6)2954 (4.6)1243 (4.6)0.693b
Type of VKA, n (%)
Acenocoumarol6220 (6.8)4932 (7.7)1288 (4.7)<0.001b
Fluindione75 192 (82.8)51 857 (81.4)23 335 (86.0)
Warfarin9414 (10.4)6890 (10.8)2524 (9.3)
Type of VKA prescriber, n (%)
General practitioner48 080 (52.9)35 620 (55.9)12 460 (45.9)<0.001b
Private practice cardiologist41 049 (45.2)26 890 (42.2)14 159 (52.2)
Other private practice specialist1467 (1.6)1014 (1.6)453 (1.7)
Practitioner in private institution230 (0.3)155 (0.2)75 (0.3)
Comorbidities, n (%)
Heart failure20 827 (22.9)14 477 (22.7)6350 (23.4)0.031b
Diabetes mellitus15 133 (16.7)10 677 (16.8)4456 (16.4)0.192b
Hypertension57 233 (63.0)39 269 (61.7)17 964 (66.2)<0.001b
Chronic renal impairment879 (1.0)671 (1.1)208 (0.8)<0.001b
Chronic hepatitis236 (0.3)181 (0.3)55 (0.2)0.027b
Peripheral arterial disease2678 (2.9)1950 (3.1)728 (2.7)0.002b
Alcohol‐related conditions, n (%)411 (0.5)286 (0.4)125 (0.5)0.816b
Smoking‐related conditions, n (%)959 (1.1)680 (1.1)279 (1.0)0.588b
Modified CHA2DS2‐VASc score, mean (SD)2.8 (1.5)2.83 (1.4)2.74 (1.5)<0.001a
Modified CHA2DS2‐VASc score, n (%)
Low (0–2)36 105 (39.8)24 596 (38.6)11 509 (42.4)<0.001c
Intermediate (3)23 667 (26.0)17 247 (27.1)6420 (23.6)
High (4–7)31 054 (34.2)21 836 (34.3)9218 (34.0)
Modified HAS‐BLED score, mean (SD)1.86 (1.0)1.86 (1.0)1.86 (1.0)0.848a
Modified HAS‐BLED score, n (%)
Low (0–1)31 679 (34.9)22 551 (35.4)9128 (33.6)0.297c
Intermediate (2)32 127 (35.3)21 959 (34.5)10 168 (37.5)
High (3–5)27 020 (29.8)19 169 (30.1)7851 (28.9)
Concomitant medications, n (%)
Antiarrhythmic agents63 642 (70.1)44 662 (70.1)18 980 (69.9)0.507b
Lipid‐lowering agents33 974 (37.4)24 201 (38.0)9773 (36.0)<0.001b
Nonsteroidal anti‐inflammatory agents15 369 (16.9)10 056 (15.8)5313 (19.6)<0.001b
Oral corticosteroids10 085 (11.1)6595 (10.4)3490 (12.9)<0.001b
Gastroprotective agents27 159 (29.9)19 415 (30.5)7744 (28.5)<0.001b
Benzodiazepines23 497 (25.9)16 665 (26.2)6832 (25.2)0.002b
Antiplatelet agents33 844 (37.3)24 724 (38.8)9120 (33.6)<0.001b
Antihypertensive agents73 973 (81.4)52 290 (82.1)21 683 (79.9)<0.001b
  • VKA indicates vitamin K antagonist.

  • a t test.

  • b Chi‐square test.

  • c Cochran‐Armitage trend test.