Table 3. Summary of Results
OutcomeTrialsParticipantsStatistical MethodEffect EstimateHeterogeneityP Value
Physiological outcomes
SBP, mm Hg1621, 24, 25, 26, 27, 29, 33, 34, 35, 38, 39, 41, 42, 44, 53, 54939MD (IV, random, 95% CI)−9.12 [−16.38 to −1.86]<0.0010.01
DBP, mm Hg1621, 24, 25, 26, 27, 29, 33, 34, 35, 38, 39, 41, 42, 44, 53, 54939MD (IV, random, 95% CI)−5.12 [−7.71 to −2.52]<0.001<0.001
Heart rate, beats per minute924, 25, 29, 33, 34, 42, 44, 51, 53463MD (IV, random, 95% CI)−2.39 [−5.61 to 0.82]<0.0010.14
Peak oxygen uptake, L/min442, 50, 52, 53166SMD (IV, random, 95% CI)0.04 [−0.46 to 0.55]0.110.87
Biochemical outcomes
TG628, 29, 35, 41, 44, 45408SMD (IV, random, 95% CI)−0.33 [−0.56 to −0.09]0.230.006
TC628, 29, 35, 41, 44, 45408SMD (IV, random, 95% CI)−1.12 [−1.97 to −0.27]<0.0010.01
LDL‐C428, 29, 44, 45324SMD (IV, random, 95% CI)−0.81 [−1.24 to −0.38]0.02<0.001
HDL‐C628, 29, 35, 41, 44, 45408SMD (IV, random, 95% CI)0.74 [0.29–1.18]<0.0010.001
BNP, ng ⁄ mL350, 52, 53146MD (IV, random, 95% CI)−23.04 [−27.10 to −18.98]0.73<0.001
Physical function
Timed up and go test, s252, 53116MD (IV, random, 95% CI)−0.20 [−0.64 to 0.24]0.770.38
6‐minute walk test, m624, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53374MD (IV, random, 95% CI)59.58 [4.95–114.20]<0.0010.03
Quality of life
MLHFQ521, 50, 51, 52, 53216MD (IV, random, 95% CI)−17.08 [−23.74 to −10.41]0.02<0.001
GHQ222, 4649MD (IV, random, 95% CI)−1.02 [−2.91 to 0.87]0.190.29
SF‐36, total230, 49148MD (IV, random, 95% CI)−5.95 [−16.16 to 4.27]0.020.25
SF‐36, general health329, 31, 49126MD (IV, random, 95% CI)−1.56 [−2.52 to −0.61]0.40.001
SF‐36, physical function329, 31, 43131MD (IV, random, 95% CI)0.82 [0.32–1.33]0.450.001
SF‐36, mental health329, 31, 43131MD (IV, random, 95% CI)−2.67 [−10.08 to 4.75]0.090.48
Depression
HAMD236, 47129MD (IV, random, 95% CI)−3.97 [−5.05 to −2.89]0.91<0.001
POMS depression scale252, 53116MD (IV, random, 95% CI)−3.02 [−3.50 to −2.53]0.76<0.001
  • BNP indicates B‐type natriuretic peptide; DBP, diastolic blood pressure; GHQ, General Health Questionnaire; HAMD, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale; HDL‐C, high‐density lipoprotein cholesterol; IV, inverse variance; LDL‐C, low‐density lipoprotein cholesterol; MD, mean difference; MLHFQ, Minnesota Living With Heart Failure Questionnaire; POMS, Profile of Mood States; SBP, systolic blood pressure; SF‐36, 36‐Item Short Form; SMD, standardized mean difference; TC, total cholesterol; TG, triglyceride.