Table 5.

Effect of Diets on Lipids, Lipoproteins, Apolipoproteins, Glucose, Insulin, CRP, and Blood Pressure

Baseline AAD (n=45)LF (n=43)MF (n=42)AV (n=43)Treatment Effect (P Value)
Cholesterol, mg/dL
TC199.9±4.8190.7±5.1a*188.7±4.4a*182.2±4.3b*0.005
Non‐HDL‐C151.2±4.3145.9±4.6a141.5±4.0a*135.3±3.8b*<0.0001
LDL‐C128.1±3.9120.5±4.2a*119.0±3.7a*113.7±3.4b*0.005
IDL‐C15.7±0.715.8±0.7a14.7±0.8b13.7±0.7b*<0.0001
LP(a)6.6±0.76.0±0.7a*6.3±0.8a,b*6.4±0.7b0.02
VLDL‐C23.3±0.925.6±1.3a*22.6±0.8b21.7±0.9b<0.0001
HDL‐C48.7±1.844.8±1.5a*47.2±1.5b*46.9±1.6b*0.02
TG, mg/dL114.0±5.9134.3±9.8a*111.1±5.8b108.6±7.2b0.0005
Lipoprotein ratios
TC:HDL‐C4.29±0.154.41±0.16a*4.15±0.15b4.00±0.13c*<0.0001
LDL:HDL‐C2.78±0.122.79±0.13a2.64±0.12b2.52±0.11c*<0.0001
TG:HDL‐C2.54±0.173.27±0.30a*2.53±0.18b2.46±0.19b0.0003
Apolipoproteins, mg/L
ApoB101.1±2.899.0±2.9a95.3±2.5b*92.4±2.5b*<0.0001
ApoA1144.6±3.0138.4±2.4*141.8±2.7*140.9±2.6*0.08
ApoB:ApoA10.71±0.020.72±0.02a0.68±0.02b0.67±0.02b*<0.0001
Glucose, mg/dL92.2±1.291.5±1.092.8±1.291.0±0.90.3
Insulin, μIU/mL4.31±0.434.30±0.504.26±0.434.13±0.410.8
hsCRP, mg/L1.48±0.231.66±0.291.43±0.251.49±0.230.3
HOMA0.99±0.110.98±0.120.97±0.100.94±0.100.6
Blood pressure, mmHg
SBP117.2±1.6115.0±1.3115.4±1.5116.6±1.50.6
DBP79.2±1.177.7±1.178.4±1.278.0±1.10.9
  • All values are means±SEMs. AAD indicates average American diet; AV, avocado diet; DBP, diastolic blood pressure; hsCRP, high sensitive C‐reactive protein; HDL‐C, high‐density lipoprotein cholesterol; HOMA, homeostatic model assessment; IDL‐C, intermediate‐density lipoprotein cholesterol; LDL‐C, low‐density lipoprotein cholesterol; LF, lower‐fat diet; LP(a), lipoprotein(a); MF, moderate‐fat diet; SBP, systolic blood pressure; TC, total cholesterol; VLDL‐C, very‐low‐density lipoprotein cholesterol.

  • * Significant change compared to baseline AAD, P<0.05. Values in diet treatments with different superscript letters (a, b, and c) are significantly different (Tukey post‐hoc test by SAS, P<0.05).