Novel α‐Actin Gene Mutation p.(Ala21Val) Causing Familial Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy, Myocardial Noncompaction, and Transmural Crypts. Clinical‐Pathologic Correlation
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Background Mutations of α‐actin gene (ACTC1) have been phenotypically related to various cardiac anomalies, including hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and dilated cardiomyopathy and left ventricular (LV) myocardial noncompaction. A novel ACTC mutation is reported as cosegregating for familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and LV myocardial noncompaction with transmural crypts.
Methods and Results In an Italian family of 7 subjects, 4 aged 10 (II‐1), 14 (II‐2), 43 (I‐4) and 46 years (I‐5), presenting abnormal ECG changes, dyspnea and palpitation (II‐2, I‐4, and I‐5), and recurrent cerebral ischemic attack (I‐5), underwent 2‐dimensional echo, cardiac magnetic resonance, Holter monitoring, and next‐generation sequencing gene analysis. Patients II‐2 and I‐5 with ventricular tachycardia underwent a cardiac invasive study, including coronary with LV angiography and endomyocardial biopsy. In all the affected members, ECG showed right bundle branch block and left anterior hemiblock with age‐related prolongation of QRS duration. Two‐dimensional echo and cardiac magnetic resonance documented LV myocardial noncompaction in all and in I‐4, I‐5, and II‐2 a progressive LV hypertrophy up to 22‐mm maximal wall thickness. Coronary arteries were normal. LV angiography showed transmural crypts progressing to spongeous myocardial transformation with LV dilatation and dysfunction in the oldest subject. At histology and electron microscopy detachment of myocardiocytes were associated with cell and myofibrillar disarray and degradation of intercalated discs causing disanchorage of myofilaments to cell membrane. Next‐generation sequencing showed in affected members an unreported p.(Ala21Val) mutation of ACTC.
Conclusions Novel p.(Ala21Val) mutation of ACTC1 causes myofibrillar and intercalated disc alteration leading to familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and LV myocardial noncompaction with transmural crypts.