Nativity Status and Cardiovascular Disease Mortality Among Hispanic Adults
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Background Hispanic persons represent a heterogeneous and growing population of any race with origins in Mexico, the Caribbean, Central America, South America, or other Spanish‐speaking countries. Previous studies have documented variation in cardiovascular risk and outcomes among Hispanic subgroups. Few studies have investigated whether these patterns vary by nativity status among Hispanic subgroups.
Methods and Results We used the National Center for Health Statistics mortality file to compare deaths of Hispanic (n=1 258 229) and non‐Hispanic white (n=18 149 774) adults (aged ≥25 years) from 2003 to 2012. We identified all deaths related to cardiovascular disease (CVD) and categorized them by subtype (all CVD, ischemic, or cerebrovascular) using the underlying cause of death (International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision codes I00–I78, I20–I25, and I60–I69, respectively). Population estimates were calculated using linear interpolation from the 2000 and 2010 US censuses. CVD accounted for 31% of all deaths among Hispanic adults. Race/ethnicity and nativity status were recorded on death certificates by the funeral director using state guidelines. Nativity status was defined as foreign versus US born; 58% of Hispanic decedents were foreign born. Overall, Hispanic adults had lower age‐adjusted CVD mortality rates than non‐Hispanic white adults (296 versus 385 per 100 000). Foreign‐born Cubans, Mexicans, and Puerto Ricans had higher CVD mortality than their US‐born counterparts (rate ratio: 2.64 [95% confidence interval, 2.46–2.81], 1.17 [95% confidence interval, 1.15–1.21], and 1.91 [95% confidence interval, 1.83–1.99], respectively).
Conclusions Mortality rates for total cardiovascular, ischemic, and cerebrovascular disease are higher among foreign‐ than US‐born Hispanic adults. These findings suggest the importance of disaggregating CVD mortality by disease subtype, Hispanic subgroup, and nativity status.